Pigment is the material that reflects or passes through the light, which absorbs the light in different wave lengths and provides the resulting color change. In other words, the material then emits absorber light energy at a certain wavelength. Because these compositions can be physically present in fluorescence, phosphorescence and other forms of luminescence, different color characteristics arise according to pigment. For example, thanks to the chlorophyll pigment found on a leaf, the sunlight with all the wavelengths of light that comes onto the leaf is only green, as it is reflected back in the wavelength of the green light.
Many materials on the earth are making colors by making different compositions. However, some of them were named as pigments, separated by people because of their coloring properties. It is expected that the pigments will have their own distinctive colors as well as their coloring properties. When mixed with other materials, the color tone determines the quality of the pigment. The pigment is expected to have a permanent and stable paint effect. The phenomenon of losing color with time or under light is called fading. When autumn comes, yellow pigment (carotenoid), which is already present but weaker than that of the color, is now more yellowish with yellowing, because of insufficient daylight hitting in summer, and damage of chlorophyll pigment, which gets its power from daylight. This color is called fading because the desired color is green. The pigments are therefore substances that are affected by the environment in which they are present. Pigments are used as colorants in many industries. It is used as an additive in sectors such as cosmics, plastics, ink and food, and it is ensured that the desired color is obtained in the final product. It is usually produced as solid powder. It can be organic or synthetic. In the plastic sector, pigments can be added directly as a colorant in production, and it is more preferable to add them as a masterbatch because of the advantages they provide.